A hard disk drive (HDD), hard disk, hard drive or fixed disk is a data storage device used for storing and retrieving digital information using one or more rigid ("hard") rapidly rotating disks (platters) coated with magnetic material.
HDDs are accessed over one of a number of bus types, including as of parallel ATA (PATA, also called IDE or EIDE; described before the introduction of SATA as ATA), Serial ATA (SATA), SCSI, Serial Attached SCSI (SAS), and Fibre Channel. Bridge circuitry is sometimes used to connect HDDs to buses with which they cannot communicate natively, such as IEEE 1394, USB and SCSI.
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- eSATA (External SATA) eSATA provides a variant of SATA for external connectivity. It uses a more robust connector, longer shielded cables, and stricter electrical standards. The protocol and logical signaling are identical to internal SATA.
- eSATA USB hybrid (EUHP) external connector eSATAp (also known as Power eSATA, eSATA/USB Combo, eSATA USB Hybrid Port (EUHP)) is a combination connection for external storage devices.
- M.2 (NGFF) connector M.2 (Next Generation Form Factor, NGFF), is a specification for computer expansion cards. Having a small and flexible physical specification, the M.2 is suitable for solid-state storage applications, especially when used in small devices such as ultrabooks or tablets.
- Mini-SATA (mSATA) connector mSATA applications include netbooks, laptops and other devices that require a solid-state drive in a small footprint.
- P-ATA / IDE interface and cable ATA=AT bus Attachment. Parallel ATA used at the PC, Apple Macintosh and some other computers. Nowdays replaced by SATA.
- P-ATA to CompactFlash (CF) adapter schematic
- SAS Serial Attached SCSI (SAS) is a point-to-point serial protocol that moves data to and from computer-storage devices such as hard drives.
- SAS x4 MultiLink SFF-8630
- SATA The Serial ATA (SATA) bus is the serial version of the ATA bus. Primarily used for hard disk connections.
- SATA Express SATA Express is an interface that supports either SATA or PCI Express storage devices. It is intended for providing a smooth transition path from SATA to PCIe storage.
- SATA micro connector
- SATA SFF-8784 SFF-8784 edge connector is intended to save space on slim SATA devices
- SATA Slimline connector
- SATA/PATA ZIF connector The connector is used in most SSD and 1.8" hard disk storage devices. The device is connected to the controller via flat ribbon cable.
- U.2 connector U.2 (SFF-8639) is a computer interface for connecting SSDs to a computer. It is developed for the enterprise market and designed to support new PCI Express drives along with SAS and SATA drives.
- ZIF to ATA interface adapter
- Apple PowerBook ATA Used on PowerBooks for the 2.5" drives. The internal hard disk has a 48-pin connector that carries both the ATA signals and the power for the drive.