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19 pin HDMI type A receptacle connector layout
19 pin HDMI type A receptacle connector
at the device
19 pin HDMI type A plug connector layout
19 pin HDMI type A plug connector
at the cable
The High-Definition Multi-media is an industry-supported digital audio/video interface. HDMI provides an interface between any compatible digital audio/video source and a compatible digital audio and/or video monitor.

HDMI supports standard, enhanced, or high-definition video, plus multi-channel digital audio on a single cable. It is independent of the various DTV standards such as ATSC, DVB(-T,-S,-C), as these are encapsulations of the MPEG data streams, which are passed off to a decoder, and output as uncompressed video data, which can be high-definition. This video data is then encoded into TMDS for transmission digitally over HDMI. HDMI also includes support for 8-channel uncompressed digital audio. Beginning with version 1.2, HDMI now supports up to 8 channels of one-bit audio. One-bit audio is what is used on Super Audio CDs.

There are a number of HDMI-standard cable connectors available, each of which can be used for any uncompressed TV or PC video format, including standard, enhanced, high definition, and 3D video signals; up to 8 channels of compressed or uncompressed digital audio; a CEC (Consumer Electronics Control) connection; and an Ethernet data connection. HDMI implements the EIA/CEA-861 standards, which define video formats and waveforms, transport of compressed, uncompressed, and LPCM audio, auxiliary data, and implementations of the VESA EDID

The HDMI specification defines the protocols, signals, electrical interfaces and mechanical requirements of the standard. There are five HDMI connector types. Type A/B are defined in the HDMI 1.0 specification, type C (also called mini HDMI) is defined in the HDMI 1.3 specification, and type D (also called micro HDMI) and E are defined in the HDMI 1.4 specification.

The standard Type A HDMI connector has 19 pins, and a higher resolution version called Type B, has been defined, although it is not yet in common use. Type B has 29 pins, allowing it to carry an expanded video channel for use with high-resolution displays. Type-B is designed to support resolutions higher than 1080p.

Type A HDMI connector pinout

Pin Signal Description
1 TMDS Data2+  
2 TMDS Data2 Shield  
3 TMDS Data2-  
4 TMDS Data1+  
5 TMDS Data1 Shield  
6 TMDS Data1-  
7 TMDS Data0+  
8 TMDS Data0 Shield  
9 TMDS Data0-  
10 TMDS Clock+  
11 TMDS Clock Shield  
12 TMDS Clock-  
13 CEC  control
14 Reserved/HEC Data− N.C. on device
15 SCL  DDC clock
16 SDA  DDC data
17 DDC/HEC/CEC Ground  
18 +5 V Power  power EDID/DDC
19 Hot Plug Detect/HEC Data+  

Type B HDMI connector pinout

Pin Signal Description
1 TMDS Data2+  
2 TMDS Data2 Shield  
3 TMDS Data2-  
4 TMDS Data1+  
5 TMDS Data1 Shield  
6 TMDS Data1-  
7 TMDS Data0+  
8 TMDS Data0 Shield  
9 TMDS Data0-  
10 TMDS Clock+  
11 TMDS Clock Shield  
12 TMDS Clock-  
13 TMDS Data5+  
14 TMDS Data5 Shield  
15 TMDS Data5-  
16 TMDS Data4+  
17 TMDS Data4 Shield  
18 TMDS Data4-  
19 TMDS Data3+  
20 TMDS Data3 Shield  
21 TMDS Data3-  
22 CEC control
23 Reserved (N.C. on device)
24 Reserved (N.C. on device)
25 SCL DDC clock
26 SDA DDC data
27 DDC/CEC Ground  
28 +5V  power EDID/DDC
29 Hot Plug Detect  

TMDS channel carries audio, video and auxiliary data.

Signalling method: According to DVI 1.0 spec. Single-link (Type A HDMI) or dual-link (Type B HDMI).
Video pixel rate: 25 MHz to 165 MHz (Type A) or to 330 MHz (Type B). Video formats with rates below 25 MHz (e.g. 13.5 MHz for 480i/NTSC) transmitted using a pixel-repetition scheme. Up to 24 bits per pixel can be transferred, regardless of rate. Supports 1080p60.
Pixel encodings: RGB 4:4:4, YCbCr 4:4:4 (8 bits per component); YCbCr 4:2:2 (12 bits per component).
Audio sample rates: 32 kHz, 44.1 kHz, 48 kHz, 88.2 kHz, 96kHz, 176.4 kHz, 192 kHz, up to 8 audio channels .

HDMI has three physically separate communication channels, which are the DDC, TMDS and the optional CEC. HDMI 1.4 added ARC and HEC.

DDC

The Display Data Channel (DDC) is a communication channel based on the I²C bus specification. HDMI specifically requires support for the Enhanced Display Data Channel (E-DDC), which is used by the HDMI source device to read the E-EDID data from the HDMI sink device to learn what audio/video formats it supports.

TMDS

Transition Minimized Differential Signaling (TMDS) interleaves video, audio and auxiliary data using three different packet types, called the Video Data Period, the Data Island Period and the Control Period. During the Video Data Period, the pixels of an active video line are transmitted. During the Data Island period , audio and auxiliary data are transmitted within a series of packets. The Control Period occurs between Video and Data Island periods.Both HDMI and DVI uses TMDS.

CEC

CEC

Consumer Electronics Control (CEC) is an HDMI feature designed to allow the user to command and control up-to 15 CEC-enabled devices, that are connected through HDMI, by using only one of their remote controls 

ARC and HEC

HDMI 1.4 introduces two features called ARC (Audio Return Channel) and HEC (HDMI Ethernet Channel). These features use two pins from the connector: a previously unused pin and the hot plug detect pin.

Type A HDMI is backward-compatible with the single-link Digital Visual Interface (DVI) used on modern computer monitors and graphics cards. This means that a DVI source can drive an HDMI monitor, or vice versa, by means of a suitable adapter or cable, but the audio and remote control features of HDMI will not be available. Additionally, without support for HDCP, the video quality and resolution may be artificially downgraded by the signal source to prevent the end user from viewing or especially copying restricted content. Type B HDMI is similarly backward-compatible with dual-link DVI.

 

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